Laboratory of Hydrocarbon Exploitation & Applied Geophysics


Director: George Apostolopoulos

The Laboratory

The Laboratory was founded on June 12, 1992 (P.D. 207 FEK 98/12-6-92).It belongs to the Mining Department of the School of Mining-Metallurgical Engineering of the National Technical University of Athens and its facilities occupy a covered area of 150 m2 on the 2nd floor of the School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Building in Zografou Polytechnic Campus. The main purpose of the Laboratory is to serve the educational and research needs in the scientific field of geophysical survey and drilling investigation of the subsoil as well as the research / exploitation of hydrocarbons.

The mission of the Laboratory

The provision of educational work to the undergraduate and postgraduate students of the N.T.U.A. with the aim of cultivating skills for the effective utilization of science and technology in the field of scientific knowledge of the Laboratory. Conducting basic and applied research, independently or within the framework of funded research programs in the direction of solving problems of the mining and technical sector, as well as the petroleum industry with the development and use of modern technologies and computing tools. The provision of services to third parties, in the form of performing measurements, analysis, processing and interpretation of results, drawing up opinions and preparing studies. The last two activities are governed by the Regulation of the N.T.U.A. RESEARCH COMMITTEE.

The equipment and know-how available to the Laboratory allow it to operate in the following areas:

A. Applied geophysics

Performance of measurements, analysis, processing and interpretation of data with the application of geophysical methods such as: gravimetric and magnetic methods, refraction & MASW seismic, geoelectrical methods (ERT, IP, SP), electromagnetic methods (G.P.R., FEM, TEM) which have applications in the following fields:

1) Mineral Exploration and Mining Design:

  • Identification and spatial evaluation of ore-bearing zones using geophysical methods
  • Detection of soil and rock properties using geophysical methods for the mining engineering projects


Geophysical surveys for mineral exploration and mining design


2) Subsoil structure, and geotechnical projects:

  • Stratigraphic mapping of the subsoil
  • Locating bedrock relief, slopes and folds of sedimentary formations
  • Identification and qualitative evaluation of zones of differentiated geotechnical features in the stable background (fault zones, tectonism, looseness)
  • Locating and dimensioning underground openings (underground openings, tunnels, abandoned mining facilities, pipelines, tanks, enclosures).
  • Delineation of semi-homogeneous underground tumors,
  • Determination of thickness of deposits and disintegrated layers
  • Estimation of rock mass mechanical parameters (Young’s measure, Poisson’s ratio),
  • Accurate mapping of road construction layers,
  • Imprinting of reinforcement in structural elements of constructions and buildings

Geophysical surveys for the foundation of a preserved building in the Hellinikon area, for road construction, for the identification of galleries in the context of the extension of the metro line, for the conservation of important monuments, Church of Agioi Theodoros, Kampos Prefecture of Messinia, Church of Agios Nikolaos in the village of Platani Prefecture of Achaia, Church of the Monastery of Kaisarianis


Marine Geoelectrical Tomography to identify the stratigraphy below the seabed for the new port of Mesto in Chios and Marathon Lake


3) Hydrogeology and Environment:

  • Locating aquifers/estimating water potential (depth – extent of water permeable or not, subsoil formations)
  • Water potential management (underground flows, aquifer enrichment – cases of reservoirs or low dams),
  • Quality/protection of water resources (possible pollution of aquifers due to salinization, proximity & association of water permeable zones with pollution areas)
  • Detection of leakage zones in cases of dams
  • Preliminary visualization of location, limits and size of waste volumes
  • Assessment of the suitability of waste disposal sites and landfills

4) Geothermal research (detecting geothermal fields)

Geophysical survey for the detection of the geothermal system in Methana Peninsula


5) Archaeological research (locating buried structures of archaeological interest)

Geophysical exploration in archaeological surveys, Temple of Hephaestus, Temple of Poseidon, Olympian Zeus Temple.


Geophysical research in archaeological research in the Bisri region of Lebanon in collaboration with the French Archaeological.




Β. Drilling Exploration of Hydrocarbons and High Temperature Geothermal Fields (GF)

  • Detailed design of large drilling projects (deep boreholes – vertical, inclined and horizontal boreholes)
  • Control, delineation and orientation of borehole trajectory during mining (mathematical analysis, modeling, integration of telematics and geophysical survey methods) (GEO-CONTROL)
  • Safety of large drilling projects – Control of blowouts and explosions inside boreholes – Well blowout (KICK-CONTROL)
  • Control and evaluation of drilling data
  • Cost analysis
  • Environmental management of drilling waste

Designing deep wells with an emphasis on efficiency and safety


C. Exploitation of Hydrocarbons and High Temperature Geothermal Fields (GF)

  • Evaluation of underground hydrocarbon reservoirs and geothermal fields
  • Recovery and separation of hydrocarbon fluids & geothermal fluids
  • Development of simulation models of thermodynamic behavior and phase equilibria of multiphase hydrocarbon fluid mixtures at high pressures and temperatures
  • Development of PVT propensity models of fluid properties in hydrocarbon reservoirs
  • Hydrocarbon Production Drilling Performance Analysis % GP
  • Development of static and dynamic models of oil, natural gas and GF reservoirs. Simulation of productive behavior and performance of reservoirs (Material balance, Black-oil & compositional Simulation)
  • Development of gas injection simulation models (CO2, N2, gaseous hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof) in hydrocarbon reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
  • Underground storage of natural gas and/or CO2 in paid oil or gas fields
  • Environmental protection and safety

Design, modeling, and flow optimization in production and injection wells


Modeling of hydrocarbon reservoirs


Study and design of underground natural gas storage systems and CO2


Field trip and onsite visit of the Lab scientific staff at the offshore facilities of the Prinos oilfield in Kavala in the frame of a CCS project


Modeling of high temperature geothermal reservoirs



D. Shallow Geothermal

  • Experimental and theoretical investigation of the thermal potential of the subsoil (subsoil temperature, thermal properties of soils and rocks)
  • Design and analytical simulation of the operation of shallow geothermal systems
  • The lab has developed a hybrid geothermal unit that covers the air conditioning of the School building.

Development of shallow geothermal utilization systems




The educational work of the Laboratory of Hydrocarbon Exploitation & Applied Geophysics includes the preparation of theses and dissertations as well as the teaching of the following courses:

A.   Undergraduate studies

Basic courses:

Subject Direction of Environmental Engineering and Geo-Environment

Subject Direction of Mining Engineering:

Pool courses:

Β. Postgraduate studies


Inter-Institutional Postgraduate Studies Program (IPSP) “Hydrocarbon Exploration and Exploitation”, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Geology (coordinator):

  • Seismic Methods in Hydrocarbon exploration (Processing and Interpretation)
  • Drilling Engineering
  • Reservoir Engineering and Reservoir Fluids / Sampling and Analysis
  • Production Engineering and Well Performance
  • Oil & Gas Software Training

Inter-Departmental Postgraduate Studies Program ((IPSP) “Design and Construction of Underground Works”, National Technical University of Athens, School of Mining & Metallurgical Engineering (coordinator):

  • Geotechnical and Geophysical Subsurface Exploration


Scientific Equipment

Seismic instruments

  • GEOMETRICS STRATAVIEW 60-channel seismograph,
  • Seismograph SEISMIC-SOURCE DAQ LINK III 24 channels with GPS
  • 12 vertical geophones 14 Hz,
  • 12 horizontal geophones 14 Hz,
  • 84 vertical 4.5 Hz geophones,
  • Metal hammer impact plate
  • Digipulse AWD-I 100 PS P and S wave seismic source
  • GISCO ESS-MINI P-wave seismic source
  • Seismic hammer and device for S waves
  • Buffalo gun device (elastic wave source)
  • Oscilloscope

Geoelectrical instruments

  • Geoelectric device ABEM SAS 1000, ABEM LUND with accessories (electrodes, cables, connections)
  • Geoelectric device SYSCAL IRIS PRO 10 parallel channels and 72 electrodes with accessories (electrodes, cables, connections)
  • Geoscan MR15 geoelectric device and accessories
  • Scintrex physical potential device, non-polarizable electrodes, Galvanometers
  • Terameter ABEM Geoelectric Device, Booster and Accessories

Magnetic instruments

  • SCINTREX EnviPRO Differential Magnetometer
  • Geometries G-816 Nuclear Magnetometer, Sensor
  • Two (2) Geometrics G 856 A Core Magnetometers, Sensors, Differential Magnetometer Capability
  • Scintrex SM 4 Magnetic Susceptibility Instrument Scintrex SM 5 Portable Magnetic Susceptibility Instrument

Electromagnetic instruments

  • MALA RAMAC Ground Radar, Shielded Antennas 1.6GHz, 500MHz, 250MHz, 100MHz Unshielded Antenna 25MHz
  • CrossOver CO1760 Impulse GPR System (Dual Channel: CH-­‐1:170 MHz (LF) / CH-­‐2: 600 MHz (HF)
  • GF CMD2 Electromagnetic Instrument (Two coil orientation options for 1.5 and 3m depths)
  • GF CMD4 Electromagnetic Instrument (Two coil orientation options for 3 and 6m depths)
  • Metal detector ELSEC Model 2000
  • VLF electromagnetic instrument

Gravimetric instruments

  • LaCoste Romberg model G gravimeter

Radiometric instruments

  • Scintrex Scintiometer and accessories


  • Electric winch
  • Portable data logger
  • Bore diameter measuring sensor
  • Electrical Discharge Sensor (Normal Resistivity & Self/Spontaneous Potential)
  • Natural Gamma sensor
  • Gamma Density sensor
  • Temperature and Conductivity Sensor

Pilot Rotary Drill

  • Support system and handling equipment
  • Bosch electric drill
  • Pump for water and drilling fluid circulation
  • Drilling fluid cleaning and recycling system
  • Drill pipes and drill bits
  • Coring bits and samplers


  • RES2DINV– Electrical Tomography
  • RES3DINV– Electrical Tomography
  • ZondRES3D- – Electrical Tomography
  • ZondTEM1D – TEM soundings
  • SeisImager 2D STD -Seismic Refraction
  • SeisImager SW1D/2D STD – MASW
  • RAMAC GroundVision– GPR data
  • CrossPoint – GPR data
  • REFLEXW – GPR-Seismic Reflection, Refraction, Tomography Data
  • QCTOOL –Gravity and magnetic processing
  • EMIGMA – Gravity-Magnetic interpretation
  • VIEWLOG- for deletions within wells
  • CMG-Black Oil Simulator
  • PVT-Simulator


  • LEICA Differential GPS series 1200
  • Portable Gasoline Generator
  • Σpacer surveying instrument Zeiss, 5m stadia
  • Pretel Altimeter,
  • Geological Compass
  • Underwater communication system